Top 10 Apps You Need To Easily Manage Your Music Career

Working as a vocalist or artist is no different from running a small business – there are lots of tasks to complete which are not necessarily your passion (performing & writing music), but are essential to your career progression.

If you are self-managed, juggling the musical aspects of what you do (singing, songwriting, recording,) alongside the various business aspects (branding, marketing, strategising, travelling, whilst also ensuring you earn a living) can feel overwhelming. Optimising your time and reducing the number of hurdles you need to jump is a priority. What holds most back when they come across one of these hurdles is thinking they don’t have the time, resources, or know-how to move past it.

However, today artists have many of the tools to manage their own music careers more easily right at their fingertips.

We have selected our Top 10 apps which can help (plus some additional ones we recommend checking out) below.

Evernote

For jotting down lyrics, song ideas, or reminders for yourself, Evernote allows you to capture notes using either audio recordings or writing text. Whilst not designed to be music-specific we think this is perfect for when inspiration strikes whilst you are out and about. Anything you make note of is stored to the cloud and so automatically syncs to your other devices, and can be shared with other users. A great organisational tool – think of it as a mobile filing cabinet. See also Slack; perfect for when you are collaborating with others and need to share group messages or files.

Trello

This is our favourite productivity tool, and great for when you have several different projects running at once. The app allows you to create a ‘board’ for each of your many projects (for example, maybe you split the boards into ‘Songwriting’, ‘Session Work’, ‘Accounting’) and under each you can list all the tasks that need completed, with the dates they are due to be done by. We constantly recommend this to Artists to help them keep track of everything they are working across. Crucially, it also helps track your progress so you can visibly see that your career is moving forward – essential in self-motivation. You can share your boards with others (band members or co-writers maybe) so any collaborators can also track how a project is progressing and stay on top of the actions required of them.

Dropbox

For sending and receiving music files directly from your phone try using the Dropbox app which allows secure sending and storage for large files such as mp3’s and WAV’s. This is ideal for exchanging music between vocalists and producers, including vocal stems, especially when you are on the go – not least as you can play the audio files from the app so you can listen immediately. You can also grant permission for several users at a time to access the same files. You will need to open an account with Dropbox (they have pricing tiers to suit all types of usage) however downloading the app is free.

Invoice2go

This app helps you create and send professional quotes and invoices, using a variety of templates which you can personalise with your own branding/logo. We highly recommend this as a timesaving tool, allowing you to send invoices whilst on the move directly from your phone (perhaps on your way home from your gig or recording session). It also securely stores all your invoicing paperwork so you can easily track who has viewed your invoice and when it has been paid. You can follow up with reminders direct from the app, and keep a record of all your receipts and expenses related to each job you complete.

WordSwag

The Wordswag app adds text to images, allowing you to create your own visual content for your social media networks. The app provides several typefaces and backgrounds to choose from, so you can tailor your creations to fit with your artist brand, even adding text to your own photographs or artwork. It’s exceptionally quick and easy to use, and the highest quality app of its kind we have found so far. If you are not able to work with a graphic designer for your visual content this allows you to take it into your own hands whilst still appearing professional. One of its very useful functions is the ability to create images to fit each of your social network platforms individually.

Canva

Similarly to Wordswag, Canva is a graphic design and photo editing app, only more comprehensive in terms of what you can create (social media images, flyers, posters, infographics, electronic press kits, for example). You can upload your own branding to it and then use these as the theme for each of your designs, ensuring consistency and uniformity of your brand across everything you create. A great tool for putting together each of the individual images you need to set up your social media profiles and even website, in the correct specifications.

VSCO

VSCO is a social media network of sorts, with users sharing photography and artwork. That makes it a great tool for sourcing visual inspiration and creating mood boards for your brand/visuals, however we specifically recommend using it to stylise your images for Instagram. You can choose from a wide variety of filters to give your images an original and artistic finish, turning your Instagram feed into a gallery which is fully aligned with your artist brand. If you’ve ever come across Instagram accounts that look particularly stylised and consistent it’s often thanks to this app. Our tip – for some inspiration on which VSCO filter to use for your images search ‘VSCO Instagram themes’ on Pinterest and see what that throws up. If you spot one that feels aligned with your brand, it will detail the exact VSCO settings to apply to your images.

Social Media

Whether you favour Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter, or YouTube for communicating with and building your audience, social network apps ensure you can engage (the most important factor in building an audience) directly with your fans. Once you have created content which is of value to them (hint: start with your voice/music) you can share it across the most suitable platform for that content.

Hootsuite

Save time by sharing and, more importantly, scheduling all your social media posts for Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter all from this one app. Plot out your posts for the coming week and then simply set-up.

Music Week – ten minutes a day spent keeping up with the latest music industry news and market trends can make all the difference. The ultimate UK music news source – read the magazine directly from its app.

 

Other apps to check out…

WhoSampled – we love this app for recognising samples in songs you just can’t place. Will let you know exactly which songs have been sampled by how many other Artists and who.

Shazam – Discover which song is playing in just a few seconds when you hear something you like – especially good for the clubbers! (see also Soundhound, which allows you to identify and play songs from a huge catalogue, even identifying melodies you hum into it).

Hype Machine – see which music is currently being most blogged about globally.

Which Apps have made your music career easier to manage? We’d love to hear your recommendations in the comments.

 

George Michael: A Tribute – The Songs That Shaped Me

Like many of you, over the last few years I have seen the musical icons who influenced me the most tragically pass away. If you’re of a certain age, and especially if you are a singer or value incredible singers & songwriters as I do, the deaths of Michael Jackson and Whitney Houston will have impacted you. In 2016 this has been followed by the loss of David Bowie, Prince, and most recently George Michael. For me all have felt a huge loss, each accompanied with the nostalgia of my earliest musical loves, despite the rich bodies of work they leave behind them.

However, none of these untimely passing’s has impacted me quite as much as that of George Michael. At first, I wasn’t sure why I felt the immense sadness I have in these last few days. Arguably I was a less engaged fan of Michael than others; for example, I never managed to see him play live, though this was very much one of my future hopes. But then I realised George Michael was far more omnipresent throughout my life – he featured heavily at every individual stage of my musical education. I admired different parts of his work at different (and very influential) times, though not necessarily in a chronological order.

An introduction

One of my earliest, clear memories of his music was the release of ‘Too Funky’ in 1992 – it was a constant on MTV and soundtracked an entire family holiday that Summer. I thought the video, which featured many of the key supermodels of that time though almost no Michael, was unbelievably glamourous whilst not taking itself seriously at all. To my 10 year old self that’s exactly what pop music should be about.

Subsequently, my teens were filled with George Michael – with my love of dance music developing at the time, for me highlights included singles Fastlove and Outside. To me, the latter is one of the most important statements a popstar has made, and the evident sense of humour (and perspective) he had never overshadowed the quality of his songwriting. When a song turns into a chart hit or dancefloor mainstay, it can be easy to write it off as being flippant or lesser quality. But with George Michael his lyrics (often melancholy, always pointed) and his vocal performances (world class) ensured it was impossible not to take him seriously as an Artist.

Tour bus staple

This was evident even in his earliest years if you listen to ‘Everything She Wants’. At over six minutes long it’s a brilliant disco record but with a contrastingly dark tale of a dysfunctional relationship. Released in 1984 by Wham! as a double A-side with ‘Last Christmas’ I didn’t come to this til much later in life when, in my first professional Artist Management role, an act I worked with played this as a tour-bus staple.  At the time, I had landed my dream job and as a result this song will forever remind me of the most formative, and perhaps happiest time, of my career.

He was also one of the few Artists myself and my jazz musician Dad could agree on, once he released his album of classic covers ‘Songs From The Last Century’ which showed off just how accomplished a singer he was. And more so, just how classy a singer he was – it always remained on the right side of pop, and was full of soul and jazz inflections. He had a clean, clear, controlled voice with a beautiful tone, and he made it look effortless. I can still remember my entire singing class trying to emulate him on his version of ‘I Can’t Make You Love Me’. For many in our vocalist network I don’t doubt that he will have been a large part of your vocal education also.

Thank you

Each of these periods were of huge influence to me and, crucially, to the existence of the AR Vocal Agency. He is undoubtedly one of the singers & songwriters who made me want to work so closely with Artists, and for this reason alone I wanted to pay tribute to him here – I, and many of you vocalists working in the commercial music industry, owe him so much.

Free Weekly Seminars for Singers & Songwriters

As you may know we recently created ‘The Vocalist Network ‘ – a private Facebook group for our extended network of vocalists.

Amongst exclusive content, tips for developing your career and a support network of other singers & songwriters we hold free weekly seminars, every Wednesday at 12.30pm GMT. You can see just one of these here:

 

Answering your questions live (Seminar 3) – The Vocalist Network

 

These are fast becoming our favourite part of the working week!

The free seminars are open to all vocalists, singer/songwriters and topline writers – join The Vocalist Network now to attend.

 

Introducing The Vocalist Network

2016 has been a year of huge transition at the AR Vocal Agency. Mostly, we have been thinking about how to best serve the incredible network of talented vocalists and topline writers we have built up.

AR receives so many questions from our vocalists about how to move forward in their careers, and it is a source of frustration that we haven’t had a platform to address these. Until today.

I have set up a private Facebook group called ‘The Vocalist Network’ and would love you to join us there!

The main purpose of this group is to offer a free source of advice and information for vocalists & topline writers, which you can apply to your own music career. It is also a great support network of fellow vocalists.

What you can expect from the group

Every Wednesday we will be holding a live seminar on topics such as how to secure backing and session vocal work, collaborating with music producers, topline writing tips, and how to market and promote yourself as an artist. Our hope is that this will help you to better self-manage your own career, especially as many of you work independently.

Support & Advice

In addition, The Vocalist Network will allow you to ‘crowdsource’ tips and help from your peers – offering the support of likeminded artists. Who better to answer the questions and understand the challenges you face than those who are on a similar path?

Join

Our aim is to make the AR Vocal Agency the most valuable resource for vocalists and topline writers working within the commercial music industry. Join us there now and help us do so!

The real cost of a vocal topline – Part 3

Last week we looked at the costs incurred by a vocalist/topline writer in writing and recording a vocal topline (you can see this here).

For balance, and to help instil a mutual respect between vocalists/topline writers and music producers, we also wanted to look at the costs to a producer when working on a collaboration. Again, please note that these are based on average costs and only applicable where the producer has recruited the vocalist/topliner to write and record a vocal for them.

AVERAGE COST TO PRODUCER

  1. Time – an indefinite amount spent researching and sourcing the right vocalist/topline writer; working up the instrumental track; placing the vocalist’s initial ideas onto a demo; producing the final version of the track; mixing & mastering; liaising with the vocalist/topline writer, and shopping the track to record labels, for example.
  2. Production & marketing costs – Considerable: on studio time (whether hiring a studio or working from home with equipment purchased); mixing & mastering costs (if not doing this themselves); legal costs (for potential contractual agreements with record label, publisher and possibly the featured artist); artwork; marketing & promotion costs, including digital marketing, radio plugging, club promo and social media strategy, such as Facebook advertising.
  3. Vocalist session fee – traditionally, anywhere between £250 – £2000+ depending on the scale of the release and the level of the Artist a producer has asked to feature. As a benchmark, for a professional ‘demo’ recording by an experienced session singer (not the final featured Artist – this is often done as a ’placeholder’ vocal for the producer to work around) a typical fee can be £350. A separate fee would then be applicable for the final recording session. Obviously very established vocalists and topline writers, including ‘names’, will ask for whatever their current market value is deemed to be – this could be considered more a ‘feature’ fee rather than a ‘session’ fee. Whilst of course producers and vocalists often negotiate lesser fees between themselves, the Musicians Union currently advise a standard recording session fee of £120 for 3 hours, with overtime paid at £30 for every additional 15 minutes of time (correct as of 2016 – reference).
  1. Publishing split – the producer should expect to offer the topline writer a split of any publishing income generated by the track, as a co-writer on the track. Please remember that the vocalist and topline writer may not be the same person, in which case a split of publishing for the writer becomes even more pertinent.

In practise, the above scenario and related costs can differ hugely; it is a very competitive area of the music industry and there are several variables that affect exact costs and remuneration for the producer. We often (understandably) see shortcuts being taken (using uncleared samples, not paying singers/topline writers) by producers who do not have the same resources available to them as those who are very established/major label backed. This breeds innovation but too often this is applied to their business dealings, as opposed to their creative process.

So, what would help make sourcing affordable, quality vocals easier for producers? We’d love to hear your thoughts over at our Facebook now.

The real cost of a vocal topline – Part 2

On last week’s blog we began discussing the real cost of a vocal topline, having observed a devaluation of singers and topline writers within the electronic music community. We asked if you agreed with this statement or not and received some interesting responses from both topline writers and producers (you can see these and join the conversation here).

In order to gain a clearer understanding of the cost of writing, recording and producing a vocal topline we have broken down the topline process, determining the approximate cost to the vocalist/topline writer for each step. Please note that these are based on average costs and only applicable in a scenario where the vocalist/topline writer is collaborating remotely with a producer.

THE TOPLINE PROCESS – STEPS
1. The vocalist/topline writer writing the melody, lyrics, harmonies and full vocal arrangement
2. The vocalist/topline writer recording demo(s) for the Producer’s approval
3. The vocalist/topline writer making amendments to the topline in preparation for final recording
4. The vocalist/topline writer recording the final vocal topline stems (including comping etc.)
AVERAGE COST TO VOCALIST/TOPLINE WRITER
1. Vocalist/Topline writers time – indefinite; Vocalist/Topline writers training and experience – years
2. Vocalist/Topline writers home studio set-up and equipment costs – several £100 minimum; OR the Vocalist/Topline writer hiring studio time and engineer to record demo(s) – between £100-£350 minimum
3. Vocalist/Topline writer’s time – indefinite, depending on how many amendments the producer may want. Further recording costs may also factor at this stage.

If you are a producer who has requested the services of a Vocalist/Topline writer to feature on your track, recognise that the process alone means that they will be incurring several expenses – often into several hundred pounds. This does not account for possible lost earnings elsewhere, whilst they take the time needed to complete the above process. So, it could be that the vocalist/topline writer has spent largely on expenses and/or lost revenue, long before receiving a session fee and co-writing split, the norm which is usually agreed between the two parties.

Of course, no one size fits all, and every circumstance must be considered individually. The point we wish to make is that the business of making and releasing music is expensive. Whilst the overall return on investment in releasing music has declined, the time, skills and experience required to make a quality track have not. It is here where the disconnect which can lead to vocalists and topline writers being devalued comes.

Agree or disagree that you need to invest in your music, if it is to reach the standard you hope for? Head over to our Facebook page and leave a comment there now.

Next week we will be looking at the overall costs to producers in procuring a vocal topline, but for now we’d love to hear your thought on this topic.

The real cost of a vocal topline – Part 1

So, you want a vocal topline for your track? But you don’t want to pay for it, at least not too much.

But what is ‘too much’? Despite working hard to deliver quality vocals to music producers at reasonable prices, we have noticed a discernible devaluing of singers and topline writers amongst the electronic music community. Many producers feel they should work for free, and be happy for the opportunity to do so. It’s a complaint we often hear from the singers and topline writers themselves too, including many established names. It seems that singing, and even lyric and melody writing (the definition of a topline), are often not considered as skilled a trade as music production.

Speaking with many electronic producers, one of the reasons presented for this is ‘everyone can sing’, by which they mean that everyone has use of their voice – not the same as having incredible natural talent, a distinct tone, and years of singing training to ensure professional technique. By this same argument, anyone with access to a laptop can produce music – but this is not the same as having years of experience, an innovative use of sounds, or fantastic software/hardware, much less a great record. Another reason given is the fact that while a producer may spend several weeks working on one track, the singer and topline writer’s work appears to be done in the few hours they spend in the studio recording the finished topline. Little accounting seems to be made for the many hours often spent developing the melody and harmonies, writing the lyrics, arranging the vocal and rehearsing the performance of it to ensure the topline is captured at its best during recording. Let’s not forget the many years, finances and efforts invested into learning and perfecting their craft, just like the best producers.

That music production is any more-or-less skilled than singing or songwriting (and vice versa) is an argument we simply can’t get behind. We believe mutual respect between the two is vital amongst the electronic music community.

Agree or disagree? Head over to our Facebook page and leave a comment there now.

We will be breaking down, in real terms, the true cost of a vocal topline next week but for now we’d love to hear your thoughts on this topic.

Are Topline Writers & Producers equal in the collaboration process?

As you will know we have been putting the finishing touches to AR Vocal Agency’s ‘The Topline Library’ – a service which provides pre-recorded acapella vocal toplines, primarily to music producers. The Topline Library will be launching very shortly, and will be updated with new toplines every month. Since you are a subscriber you will gain exclusive access to the library on the first Tuesday of every month (like today) so mark it in your diary.

In order to make the service the best it can possibly be for both our clients (music producers) and our content generators (topline writers/vocalists), we have surveyed and interviewed several music producers, topline writers and vocalists from our community. You may be one of them. Hearing your thoughts on, and experiences of, the topline process has reaffirmed for us the fact that an industry standard – if one exists – is rarely adhered to. Furthermore, the contribution that both parties make during the collaborative process, and the respective rights attributed to both producers and topliners/vocalists, remains an area of huge misinformation and misunderstanding. This has become a topic of fascination at the AR Vocal Agency and we hope to better understand the opinions and feelings of producers, topliners and vocalists, so that we are able to better inform and add value to those within the music community. With that in mind we would love to hear your thoughts, and open a conversation around the topics which we see sparking greatest debate.

With that in mind, we would love to hear your views and provide a platform for the music producers in our community to converse directly with the 2000 topline writers and vocalists in our community, starting today. So, without further ado, whether you are a music producer (or someone who works with them) or a vocalist/topline writer we would like to hear your thoughts on the following question – in the collaborative process between a topline writer/vocalist and a music producer working together on a track, do you feel that the topliner and the producer’s contributions (skills, talent and time) to that track are equal?

Please comment with your thoughts here.

We hope that this will be both insightful and useful for you to be able to make direct contact with one another. As such, as well as our usual content, this will be a regular feature for the AR Vocal Agency community moving forward.

Join us over at the conversation now.

Vocals We Love – Autumn 2016

We wanted to take the opportunity to share some toplines, vocal performances and vocal production/edits we have been loving recently. In no particular order, the below list have all been on the AR Vocal Agency office stereo on rotation in recent weeks and we hope they provide some inspiration whether you are a topline writer, vocalist or producer.

Robyn – Main Thing (Mr. Tophat Remix)

Emelí Sandé – Hurts

Becky Hill – Warm

Sasha – Track 10

Nao – Happy (Live)

Lady Gaga & Florence Welch – Hey Girl

Fono – Feet On The Ground

Kaytranada featuring Craig David – Got It Good

Disclosure featuring Kwabs – Willing & Able (Live)

The Golden Boy – Good To You (vocalist Jasmine Knight – one of our own!)

Which vocals have you been listening to recently? Let us know over at our Facebook page now.

Know Your Rights: Topline Writers, Producers & Vocalists

The collaborative process between music producers, topline writers and vocalists (who may or may not also be the topline writer) in creating a song, should lead to an end product which all parties can be proud of. However, when it comes to the respective rights of each person involved, it can also lead to conflict and misunderstandings – like this example of Avicii and Leona Lewis.

In the complexed and multi-faceted area that is copyright and royalties it’s not hard to see how confusion can ensue. However, there should be no excuse for failing to recognise the rights of topline writers and vocalists, as well as those of producers, whom have jointly created music together. Unfortunately, we see too many cases where at least one party has not had their rights recognised nor registered with the necessary organisations. These are most often due to a lack of understanding and administrative oversights, as opposed to malice. This is why it is so important that topline writers, vocalists and music producers all take responsibility for being as knowledgeable in this area as possible and ensuring they are discussing terms from the outset of a collaboration. In turn, record labels must also take responsibility for recognising the Rights of all parties involved in the creation of a record and reflecting this in their agreements.

As a vital aspect of making and monetising music, we will be writing about this in more detail and offering resources to topline writers, vocalists and producers on this in future. However, let’s start with the basics. Whether you are a topline writer, songwriter, producer or vocalist, if you have collaborated on the creation of a song in any way these are the rights you need to be aware of and what you can do to ensure these are being administered correctly.

 

Songwriting Splits (Copyright)

If you write any part of a song, whether it is the topline melody, the lyrics or the backing track, you are due a songwriting split (and in turn a share of publishing income – mechanical royalties and performance royalties) of that song. Therefore, this would be relevant to topline writers and lyricists, as well as music producers if their production constitutes songwriting work (i.e. they wrote/produced the instrumental parts of the song, as is typical in electronic music). You would not be eligible for a songwriting split (or any publishing income) if you recorded vocals on a track as the singer, but did not contribute in any way to the writing of the song (please note – in rare cases there could be exceptions to this if you had been expected to do a large amount of vocal arranging, create (write) extensive harmonies or heavily ad lib). It is also not unheard of in electronic music that a featured vocalist who did not contribute to the songwriting may still be offered a songwriting split, in lieu of a session fee, by way of payment.

The way in which songwriting splits are decided are often determined by a few different factors – for example, how many people have been involved in the songwriting process or how much you contributed to the song. Historically, the lyrics and topline melody of a song would make up 50% of the song, while the instrumental/backing track parts would make up the remaining 50% of the song. However, in electronic music these two features of a song aren’t always equal. Furthermore, whilst a song may be split 50/50 between a topline/lyric writer and a producer, it is common practise that both parties will actually own 50% of both the topline/lyrics and the track – despite who wrote what. More on songwriting splits and the complexities of determining each writers split here and here.

Whichever splits are agreed between the songwriters, it is important that this is stated in writing (as early as possible but certainly before the song is exploited in any way) and that each writer then registers their share of the song so they receive the correct publishing income which may arise. To ensure you catch all the types of income which are generated from owning any musical copyright you must register your songwriting splits with both the Performing Rights Society (PRS) and the Mechanical Copyright Protection Society (MCPS) here.

 

Mechanical Rights

Mechanical Rights compensate the writer(s) of a song when that song is reproduced or distributed either in physical form, such as CD or DVD, or streamed/downloaded from the internet. Therefore, you are entitled to Mechanical royalties if you wrote any part of the topline melody and lyrics, or indeed the instrumental backing track, and thus it is relevant to topline writers, lyricists and producers. It is not relevant if you only recorded a vocal without having written any part of the song.

If you have written any part of a song which is due to be released on a record label, you should be awarded mechanical royalties even if you are not the named or main Artist of the song. This is often overlooked if you are a topline writer collaborating with a producer or Artist who signs the song on which you collaborated to a record label. Labels do not always use due diligence in checking how many writers were involved in the creative process and will sometimes agree mechanical splits with the main Artist/producer without including the topline writer. This is a too-often occurrence in dance music.

Therefore, if you are a topline writer you should be ensuring that your contribution to the writing is reflected with a share of the mechanical royalties, and that both the Artist with whom you are collaborating and the label releasing the song are fully aware and in agreement – ideally before the song is signed but certainly before release. You should also be a member of the Mechanical Copyright Protection Society (MCPS) who will collect the mechanical royalties due to you, on your behalf.

 

Performing Rights

Performing Rights compensate the writer(s) of a song when that song is played (in either live or recorded form) publicly at concerts and festivals, as well as being broadcast on radio, TV and certain digital platforms, or played in clubs, venues, shops, and public business establishments such as gyms etc. Therefore, you are entitled to Public Performance Royalties if you wrote any part of the topline melody and lyrics, or indeed the instrumental backing track and thus it is relevant to topline writers, lyricists and Artist/producers (in the context of electronic music). It is not relevant if you recorded a vocal without having written any part of the song.

If you are the writer of any part of a song, in order to receive your writer’s share you need to ensure you are registered as a rights holder member with the Performing Rights Society (PRS) in the UK. You can do so here.

 

Neighbouring Rights

As with the above, Neighbouring Rights also relate to public performance of a song. However, while public performance rights compensate the writer of the song when their music is publicly performed, neighbouring rights compensate the master holder (usually, the record label) AND the performer when a song recording is played in any public forum. Therefore, if you perform on a song (for example, sang the vocal) you should be awarded neighbouring rights even though you did not write any of the lyrics or melody. These rights therefore apply to lead vocalists, backing vocalists, session singers and all instrumentalists who perform on a song recording. This means you will be awarded royalties (the ‘Performers Share’) each time a record you perform on is played on radio and TV, or in clubs, venues, shops, and public business establishments such as gyms etc. If you are the performer on a record, in order to receive your performers share you need to ensure you are credited as a performer at the time the song is registered with neighbouring rights societies – Phonographic Performance Limited (PPL) in the UK. You can do so here.

Please note that neighbouring rights aren’t paid in the USA, and therefore not applicable to US plays of your record.

 

Disclaimer: please note that rights, royalties and how they are administered can differ from territory to territory – the above are specific to the UK. Most other territories have equivalent societies as all those mentioned above.